Systematic search for biochemical and genetic information in nature in order to develop commercially-valuable products and applications.
Integrating ecological services means making conservation indices (e.g. size/quality of protected areas) part of the fiscal allocation formula to reward investments in conservation.
Payments for ecosystem services (PES) occur when a beneficiary or user of an ecosystem service makes a direct or indirect payment to the provider of that service.
The sale tax any individual or firm who purchases fuel for his/her automobile or home heating pays. Fuel taxes can reduce the consumption of fossil fuels and greenhouse gas emissions while generating public revenues.
Taxes on certain pesticides and chemical fertilizers can mobilize fiscal revenues while mitigating the negative effects associated with pesticide/fertilizers application and promoting sustainable agriculture practices.
Any fee, charge or tax charged on the extraction and/or use of renewable natural capital (e.g. timber or water).
Excise taxes on tobacco products can raise fiscal revenues, improve health and well-being, and address market failures.