Debt and equity

Any solution that involves an obligation or liability to make a payment and/or the acquisition of ownership rights (equity, property or financial asset), e.g. green bonds.


Any solution that involves a fiscal reform, e.g. changes in taxation or the reform of a subsidy’s regime.


Any solution that involves the allocation of a financial award, e.g. Official Development Assistance or philanthropy.


Any solution that involves a market transaction e.g. private payment for ecosystem services and offset markets.


Any solution that involves a regulatory reform, e.g. the imposition of a certain behavior through the law or a regulation.

Risk management

Any solution that involves the transfer of risk between two or more parties e.g. guarantee.

Related publications

DREI introduces an innovative framework to assist policymakers in to cost-effectively promote investment in renewable energy.

A sectoral approach: protected areas, sustainable forests, sustainable agriculture and pro-poor energy.