Trade

 

Bioprospecting

Systematic search for biochemical and genetic information in nature in order to develop commercially-valuable products and applications.

Disaster risk insurance

Insurance schemes covering—against a premium—the costs incurred by the insured entity from extreme weather and natural disasters.

Enterprise challenge funds

Funding instrument that distributes grants (or concessional finance) to profit-seeking projects on a competitive basis.

Impact investment

Investments made with the intention to generate a measurable social and environmental impact alongside a financial return.

Public guarantees

Guarantees can mobilize and leverage commercial financing by mitigating and/or protecting risks, notably commercial default or political risks.

Taxes on fuel

The sale tax any individual or firm who purchases fuel for his/her automobile or home heating pays. Fuel taxes can reduce the consumption of fossil fuels and greenhouse gas emissions while generating public revenues.

Taxes on pesticides and chemical fertilizers

Taxes on certain pesticides and chemical fertilizers can mobilize fiscal revenues while mitigating the negative effects associated with pesticide/fertilizers application and promoting sustainable agriculture practices.

Taxes on renewable natural capital (water; timber)

Any fee, charge or tax charged on the extraction and/or use of renewable natural capital (e.g. timber or water).

Taxes on tobacco

Excise taxes on tobacco products can raise fiscal revenues, improve health and well-being, and address market failures.

Voluntary standards (finance)

Standards applicable to the financial sector that capture good practices and encourage the achievement and monitoring of social and environmental outcomes.

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